Answers To Difficult Questions: Has G_d Rejected His People?

Rav Shaul gives the answer to the question of Israel’s status:    

I.+God+has+not+rejected+Israel…+Israel+rejected+God

 

listen_2


In our studies in Romans 9 – 11 we consider the weighty question as to whether G_d has rejected the Jewish people? Many who hold to this viewpoint assert that this is due to their failure to embrace Jesus/ Yeshua as Messiah and L_rd?

In chapter 11 of Romans 

Rav Shaul Asks:

The

“Has G_d Rejected His People?” For Jewish People and the Church, this is one of the biggest controversies that has continued to fuel the phenomena of Anti-Judaism and inadvertently contributed to Anti-Semitism and Jew-hatred.

Anti-Zionism while not directly linked to the question of whether G_d has rejected the Jewish people [Israel], any negative suggestion helps to contribute to an antipathy towards Jews, Judaism and Israel.


I personally have met many well-meaning Christians who when  Judaism is spoken about as a religion, a very negative attitude towards it is expressed.

Part of the problem is the perception that because of Israel’s failure as a whole to embrace Jesus/ Yeshua as Messiah and L_rd, it is therefore wrongly then supposed that G_d must have rejected Israel as a consequence of her failure.

In addition, their theology concerning the Jews and the law is ill-informed and based upon a superficial understanding of the place of the law in biblical New Testament texts. Their exposure to Judaism is based solely upon their reading of the Holy Scriptures and particularly the controversies that Jesus and his disciples experienced with the religious leaders of the time, in the gospels, Acts and epistles.

Also, they usually have never met or discussed the importance of the Torah with a contemporary Jewish person who practices their faith in the present-day. Prejudice fuelled by ignorance results in negative outcomes that build barriers, rather than building bridges of understanding and love.


210283


As previously said, due to the complexity of the issues involved in Jews, Judaism and Jesus no single simple answer may be given in resolving this question.

Rabbi Dr. Leo Baeck and Professor Martin Buber

 

Rabbi Dr. Leo Baeck and Professor Martin Buber both have fully engaged in attempting to answer the question of the relationship between, Jews, Judaism and the Christian Church. Theirs is a Jewish response as insiders, i.e. those within Judaism. Those who are authentic Jewish philosophers and theologians speak not out of ignorance, but out of a deep knowledge of their Jewish heritage and also an in-depth engagement and study of Christianity and the Church’s response and attitude to Judaism post Second Temple and the Christ advent.

WWI_LB

Leo Baeck as a German Army Chaplain to the Jewish Forces in WWI


Leo Baeck studied in Germany and did his doctoral studies on the essence of Christianity as presented by Adolf von Harnack and in response wrote a book called The Essence of Judaism.

 

Adolf von Harnack & Leo Baeck’s book  The Essence of Judaism


Adolf von Harnack 

A word about Adolf von Harnack is fitting as he largely influenced Leo Baeck and as a result, Baeck’s perception of Christianity is viewed through the lens of Harnack’s theological outlook.

Adolf von Harnack was a greatly respected historian and theologian. In his lectures on “What is Christianity?” he saw Christianity as “nothing but three intersecting circles:

“The kingdom of G_d, the infinite worth of the human soul and that ‘Higher’ righteousness manifested in love” (p 42, Jewish Perspectives on Christianity – Harnack’s lectures on the Essence of Christianity).

As a theological thinker and writer there is a clear deficiency in both his historical and theological outlook when he comes to dealing with post Second Temple Judaism: “It is also lack of his topical clarity when Harnack pays little attention to the influence which the course of political events leading to the destruction of the Temple and the fall of Betar*, had on the history of the apostolic era – that is: on the time when the difference between Jews and Christians consisted in those saying the Messiah would come and others saying he would come again. Similarly, the whole climate of the century in which Jesus lived has not been sufficiently regarded, which would have been necessary for grasping the fervour of the messianic hopes, for understanding that Jesus believed himself and his disciples, and that whole epoch, one must feel in what air Jews lived then, particularly in Palestine. One has to know what kind of people had been formed through his topical events… And this leads to still another matter. Most writers about the life of Jesus, fail to point out that Jesus, in every one of his traits, was a thoroughly Jewish character:

“In all his traits, Jesus is through and through a genuinely Jewish character. Such a man as he could only grow up on the soil of Judaism, only there and nowhere else. Jesus a genuine Jewish personality;  all his driving and acting, his bearing and feeling, his speech and his silence, all of it bear the Jewish stamp, the imprint of…the best that was found in Judaism. Indeed that time [prior to the gifts Judaism bestowed on the church] this was the best found only in Judaism…From no other people could such a man as he arose, and in no other people could such a man have been able to work; and in no other people would he have found the apostles who believed in him” (Jewish Perspectives on Christianity, Rothschild, p 26/44). – This matrix of the personality of Jesus has not been regarded by Harnack.

This lack of attention is compounded by other basic mistakes in Harnack’s work.  He displays a disregard for Jewish literature and scholarship. To quote Abraham Geiger who wrote many decades ago, who wrote accusingly:

“One would consider and reconsider before disparaging matters which one does not explore independently for lack of the necessary preconditions and abilities. Only vis-à-vis Judaism does one believe that one can set about with sovereign arbitrariness” {p 44).

Geiger’s words are all too apt with regards to Harnack’s almost cavalier way in which he treats Judaism. All the more a pity, because much of what he says in “What is Christianity?” is excellent and worthy of consideration.

If von Harnack were to ask what part of his presentation should remain and be expanded upon? With a world religion not only founded and named after Jesus, the moment in time was right for this unique G_d sent personality to appear centre stage. The pagan world was able to absorb Israel’s teaching and also for G_d to let his own people the Jews rise to the occasion. And if only for that reason, Judaism has nothing but love and respect for the founder of (the messianic way) Christianity….(p 45).

Though at times during two millennia since the beginning of New Testament times. This has been characterised by mutual distrust, fierce polemic, exclusion, exiles, severe persecution, murder, and hatred. Surely the time is right for the deepening of the bonds of mutual love and respect and new and meaningful ways to be discovered and fostered between the two faiths?

Os Guinness in his 2016 book Impossible People*, writes concerning the existential crisis that Jews and Christians are facing in this era of advanced modernity in the face of the onslaught of rapid secularisation of Western society:

“In many ways, the book [Impossible People] is also a quiet tribute to our friends in the Jewish community. As many Jewish leaders have recognised, Jews are facing their own severe crisis today because of defection from Judaism under the conditions of advanced modernity, and this time not primarily because of anti-Semitism or persecution. In the words of Rabbi Jonathan Sacks,

“When it was hard to be a Jew, people stayed Jewish. When it was easy to be a Jew, people stopped being Jewish. Globally, this is the major Jewish problem of our time.”

“But while the Jewish crisis is evident, it is also true that we are living in what may be called the Jewish hour. First, more the half the world’s inhabitants are followers of one of the three faiths that trace their origins to Abraham. Second, it is time to appreciate the incalculable debt the Western world has long owed to Jewish beliefs and ideas – above all the gifts of human dignity, freedom and the importance of covenant for political systems that prize freedom. And third, it is time for Christians to appreciate how the secret of the miraculous survival of the Jews in history offers very practical lessons in how Christians are to remain faithful in a post-Christian age. The simple fact is that many of the first things about Judaism are the first thing that many Christians are in danger of forgetting. But they are the very things that we must hold fast to our Lord and demonstrate our capacity to endure” (Impossible People, p 25).


 *Os Guinness, Impossible, IVP Books, USA, 2016 –

ISBN: 978-0-8308-4465-4 print & ISBN: 978-0-8308-9338-6 digital 

51T6BLB8XKL._SL300_


As Guinness has so eloquently said, this is all the more reason for Christians and Jews to show mutual respect and affection in deepening the bonds that tie the two faiths together.

As part of building together for a brighter future, may we express together with Friedrich Berner the thought:

“Judaism which in the past rendered such great services, will yet more of them in the future” (p 45).

Equally, may Christianity give expression to its core ethic of love and respect towards Judaism as a religion and the Jewish people. Together, we are true fellow travellers and we seek to serve the same covenant keeping G_d whose desire is that the two faiths may be fully reconciled in a common destiny.  


Divided and apart we are the weaker, united and together, we are the stronger!

3575000735-6ba08467d9-b-1496766134


*[Betar fortress (Hebrewבֵּיתַּר‬) was an ancient, terraced farming village in the Judean highlands.[1][2][3] The Betar fortress was the last standing Jewish fortress in the Bar Kokhba revolt of the 2nd century CE, destroyed by the Roman army of Emperor Hadrian in the year 135.

The site of historic Betar (also spelled Beitar or Bethar), next to the modern Palestinian village of Battir, southwest of Jerusalem, is known as Khirbet al-Yahud in Arabic (meaning “ruin of the Jews”). Today, the Israeli settlement and city Beitar Illit is also located nearby].


d8cf06fdd0caed8d13bc0b4212aaa574-2

Jewish Self-respect and Pride  

Is this not the right time for Jewish people to stand tall and be proud and be willing to declare, “I am a Jew and I am proud of my heritage!”

Like theBlack consciousness movement in the 1960’s and 1970’s that arose out of the black struggle against oppression of the apartheid system in South Africa, so Jewish consciousness needs to equally be asserted in this age when her enemies seek to demean Jews and delegitimize Israel as a nation, and the Jewish right to have its own  homeland.

To say, “I am proud to be a Jew,” is part of regaining Jewish self-awareness and self-respect.


Next, we will consider what Leo Baeck and Martin Buber have to say with regards to the development of the early Messianic movement from a Jesus sect within Judaism through to a separate religion. Both these men claim that the Apostle Paul was the creator of a Christianity that made the separation from post Second Temple Judaism unavoidable and inevitable. They refer to the fundamental changes that were brought about as Paulism, who they assert is the founder of Christianity as a separate religion.

While Leo Baeck thinking towards Christianity was largely influenced by Adolf von Harnack, Martin Buber ascertains that there were some serious and irreconcilable differences between the two faiths.

84804-tube-direction-signs copy1

Jewish Self-Awareness and Pride

i-m-proud-to-be-a-jew 1

Is this not the right time for Jewish people to stand tall and be proud and be willing to declare, “I am a Jew and I am proud of my heritage?”

Like the Black consciousness movement in the 1960’s and 1970’s that arose out of the black struggle against oppression of the apartheid system in South Africa, so Jewish consciousness needs to equally be asserted in this age when her enemies seek to demean Jews and delegitimize Israel as a nation, and the Jewish right to have its own homeland.

To say, “I am proud to be a Jew,” is part of regaining Jewish self-awareness and self-respect.


Leo Baeck and Martin Buber on Paulism

A definition of Paulism is best explained as the theory that the Apostle Paul, the apostle to the Gentiles, started a new religion that rejects the law as being obsolete and redundant because faith in Christ has done away with and replaced a law-based religion that the Jews observe. Many texts and passages are quoted from Paul’s writings to substantiate this claim. Paul is also sometimes accused of being antinomian (against the law/ literally, without law).

This has also lead to supersessionism or replacementism or as it is often referred to as Replacement Theology which holds to the belief that the Church has replaced Israel as the new people of G_d. It also involves the appropriation of the Hebrew Scriptures (subsequently called the Old Testament) as part of the Christian Bible and includes applying all the blessing given to Israel now for the Church only and conveniently leaving behind only the curses for old Israel.

So did Paul start a new religion? Leo Baeck’s main thrust is that for Paul the Law is done away with the Advent of Christ and that faith in the words of Martin Luther is Sola Fide [by faith alone].


Five solae of the Protestant Reformation: Sola scriptura; Sola Fide; Sola gratia; Solus Christus; Soli Deo Gloria

The doctrine of sola fide asserts G_d’s pardon for guilty sinners is granted to and received through faith alone, excluding all “works“. All humankind, it is asserted, is fallen and sinful, under the curse of G_d, and incapable of saving itself from G_d’s wrath and curse. But G_d, on the basis of the life, death, and resurrection of his SonJesus Christ alone (solus Christus), grants sinners judicial pardon, or justification, which is received solely through faith. Faith is seen as passive, merely receiving Christ and all his benefits, among which benefits are the active and passive righteousness of Jesus Christ. Christ’s righteousness, according to the followers of “sola fide,” is imputed (or attributed) by God to the believing sinner (as opposed to infused or imparted), so that the divine verdict and pardon of the believing sinner is based not upon anything in the sinner, but upon Jesus Christ and his righteousness alone, which are received through faith alone. Justification is by faith alone and is distinguished from the other graces of salvation. See the ordo salutis for more detail on the doctrine of salvation considered more broadly than justification by faith alone.

The Lutheran and Reformed branches of historic Protestantism have held to sola-fide justification in opposition to Roman Catholicism especially, but also in opposition to significant aspects of Eastern Orthodoxy. These Protestants exclude all human works (except the works of Jesus Christ, which form the basis of justification) from the legal verdict (or pardon) of justification. In the General Council of Trent the Catholic Church stated in canon XIV on justification that “If any one saith, that man is truly absolved from his sins and justified, because that he assuredly believed himself absolved and justified; or, that no one is truly justified but he who believes himself justified; and that, by this faith alone, absolution and justification are effected; let him be anathema (excommunicated).” Thus, “faith alone” is foundational to Lutheranism and Reformed Christianity, and distinguishes it from other Christian denominations. According to Martin Luther, justification by faith alone is the article on which the Church stands or falls.


leo-baeck

Leo Baeck

Part of Leo Baeck’s thinking is based on the fact that he accuses Paul of giving expression to a romanticised form of faith and in his view, Paul has totally abrogated the Law and is antinomian (without law).  One of the reasons for this approach to the Law is that as the apostle to the Gentiles, those who are without the law, in no way need to be brought under its constraint.

For Baeck, this is totally unacceptable and as an observant Jew, his view is that this is no longer compatible with any form of Judaism, where the very observance of the Torah/Law is its very foundation.

In response to Rabbi Leo Baeck’s assertion, I wish to say that I believe that Leo Baeck has an unbalanced view of Paul and his theology. One of the reasons for this is due to the fact that von Harnack’s view of Paul has adversely coloured Baeck’s thinking.

My reading of Paul/ Shaul is that while salvation is by faith alone, i.e. trusting in the Messiah’s atoning death on the cursed tree/cross, that does not mean that the law no longer has any part in the believer’s life. Paul cannot and must not be read alone from all other New Testament writers, and neither should one take the point of view that for the Messianic Jew and Gentile Christian that the Torah/Law no longer has any part to play in his/her life.

A true biblical emphasis is that the grace of G_d is freely bestowed upon all who call upon the name of the L_rd. We are not saved through works of the law, by trusting in our own human effort to be put right with G_d, but we are delivered by the saving action of G_d in Messiah who reconciles the world to himself in and through Christ.

Jesus, James and even Paul emphasise that if we trust in Messiah for salvation then there is a moral/ ethical response required by those who make a profession of faith. Those who desire to give clear attention to the teachings of the whole of Scripture and this includes both the Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament.

While the way that the believer seeks to understand how to apply the law in one’s life may vary, one is certainly not at liberty to live a lawless life. Whether we are a Jew or Gentile, there is both room for interpretation of how to live/ walk the messianic life.

Paul said that if you were saved as a Jew do not seek to become a Gentile and the converse of that is equally true. Gentiles do not seek to become like Jews in their following the Messiah Yeshua.


is (4)

Martin Buber

Martin Buber raises some challenging issues that we will do well to ponder in our desire to have a deeper understanding of our faith. In his book Two Types of Faiths, he says that for a Jew who has not embraced the messiahship of Jesus, we may not assert that that one is lost and rejected by G_d:

“The faith, which Paul indicates in his distinction between it and the law, is no one which could have been held in the pre-Christian era. “The righteousness of G_d by which he means His declaration of [hu]man[kind] as righteous, is that which is through faith in Christ (Romans 3.22 & Galatians 2.16), which means faith in the one who has come, died on the cross and risen.”

In the matter of “faith” against “works,” which Paul pursues, he doe not, therefore, intend a thing which might have existed before the coming of Christ. He charges Israel (Romans 9.31) with having pursued the “law of righteousness” and not having attained it, because it strove after it, “not by faith but by work.” Is this to mean that ancient Israel did not fulfil the law because it did not strive to fulfil it by faith? Surely not, for it is immediately explained that they have stumbled on the stone of stumbling, and that cannot apply to former Israel and a possible insufficiency of its faith in the future coming of the Messiah, but only to the Jews of that time, those who Paul sought for Christ and whom he had not won for him because they did not recognise him the promised Messiah of belief.

Buber raises some important questions that need to be addressed in the context of Romans 9 – 11 and Paul’s argument about Israel’s election and subsequent failure to fully respond to the messianic claims about Yeshua/Jesus. Also, why did Israel not fully embrace him as Messiah and L_rd need to be answered?


We also, more importantly, need to answer his question about the faith verse works scenario that Buber raises because this is the hinge upon which the “messianic door hangs!” He accuses Paul of saying that Judaism holds to a works based faith, and he says that Judaism does not base its faith solely upon keeping the Torah.

hqdefault (1)


Once more just as Buber is an “insider” when it comes to his dealing with Judaism and its beliefs, when it comes to his in-depth understanding of the messianic faith, he is an “outsider.” Even as a very sympathetic and sincere person, nonetheless, he remained an outsider of the messianic community of faith.

Consequently, he had to justify his position and remain a critic of Messianic/ Christian religion. Equally, as an “insider” of Judaism, he had every rights to stand up to its belief and practice [orthodoxy and orthopraxy*] .


*In the study of religion, orthopraxy is correct conduct, both ethical and liturgical, as opposed to faith or grace etc.[1][2][3]This contrasts with orthodoxy, which emphasizes correct belief, and ritualism, the practice of rituals.[4] The word is a neoclassical compoundὀρθοπραξία (orthopraxia) meaning ‘correct practice’.

While orthodoxies make use of codified beliefs, in the form of creeds, and ritualism more narrowly centres on the strict adherence to prescribed rites or rituals, orthopraxy is focused on issues of family, cultural integrity, the transmission of tradition, sacrificial offerings, concerns of purity, ethical systems, and the enforcement thereof.[5][6] Typically, traditional or folk religions (paganism, animism) are more concerned with orthopraxy than orthodoxy, and some argue that equating the term “faith” with “religion” presents a Christianbiased notion of what the primary characteristic of religion is. This contrasts with the case of (for example) Hinduism, in which orthopraxy and ritualism are not easily disentangled.


Some Concluding Thoughts

Returning to Romans 11, Paul deals with the question, “Has G_d rejected his people?” by giving a very clear unequivocal answer: “By no means! I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, a member of the tribe of Benjamin. God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew” (NRSV). The whole chapter 11 outlines Paul’s thinking and argument given below. Rejection has its implications and consequences and in the case of Israel’s response to the messianic claims about Yeshua/Jesus, he has been and continues to be a major cause of stumbling to the majority of Jewish people. However, there are growing numbers of Jews who have made the great discovery that Yeshua is more than just a prophet, a great man, miracle-working rabbi, visionary, “elder brother” (Buber), friend, etc. They have come to the conclusion that he is both Messiah and L_rd.

Paul out of his deep-felt love for Israel says, that all Israel will be saved! While at the present time it is a remnant according to grace who have come into the messianic kingdom, the day is coming as the prophet Zechariah says,

Zechariah 12:10-13 (NRSV):

Mourning for the Pierced One

10 And I will pour out a spirit of compassion and supplication on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that, when they look on the one[a] whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn. 11 On that day the mourning in Jerusalem will be as great as the mourning for Hadad-Rimmon in the plain of Megiddo. 12 The land shall mourn, each family by itself; the family of the house of David by itself, and their wives by themselves; the family of the house of Nathan by itself, and their wives by themselves; 13 the family of the house of Levi by itself, and their wives by themselves; the family of the Shimeites by itself, and their wives by themselves;Footnotes:

  1. Zechariah 12:10 Heb on me
Of a truth, I together with many other Jewish people are of the firm conviction that the day is not far off when Jewish people will say,
“Baruch haba b’Shem Adonai” (ברוך הבא בשם יהוה ). This has a special meaning. Yeshua said in Matthew 23:39, “For I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the L_rd.’

May G_d hasten that day! Amen!  


 

MTMI Shalom Radio Uk is sponsored by MTMI – Messianic Teaching Ministry International

The full text of Roman 11

Israel’s Rejection Is Not Final

11 I ask, then, has God rejected his people? By no means! I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, a member of the tribe of Benjamin. God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew. Do you not know what the scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel? “Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have demolished your altars; I alone am left, and they are seeking my life.” But what is the divine reply to him? “I have kept for myself seven thousand who have not bowed the knee to Baal.” So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace. But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works, otherwise grace would no longer be grace.[a]What then? Israel failed to obtain what it was seeking. The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened, as it is written,

“God gave them a sluggish spirit,    eyes that would not see    and ears that would not hear,down to this very day.”

And David says,

“Let their table become a snare and a trap,    a stumbling block and a retribution for them;10 let their eyes be darkened so that they cannot see,    and keep their backs forever bent.”

The Salvation of the Gentiles

11 So I ask, have they stumbled so as to fall? By no means! But through their stumbling[b]salvation has come to the Gentiles, so as to make Israel[c] jealous. 12 Now if their stumbling[d]means riches for the world, and if their defeat means riches for Gentiles, how much more will their full inclusion mean!13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I glorify my ministry 14 in order to make my own people[e] jealous, and thus save some of them. 15 For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead! 16 If the part of the dough offered as first fruits is holy, then the whole batch is holy; and if the root is holy, then the branches also are holy.17 But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, a wild olive shoot, were grafted in their place to share the rich root[f] of the olive tree, 18 do not boast over the branches. If you do boast, remember that it is not you that support the root, but the root that supports you. 19 You will say, “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” 20 That is true. They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand only through faith. So do not become proud, but stand in awe. 21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, perhaps he will not spare you.[g] 22 Note then the kindness and the severity of God: severity toward those who have fallen, but God’s kindness toward you, provided you continue in his kindness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 23 And even those of Israel,[h] if they do not persist in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God has the power to graft them in again. 24 For if you have been cut from what is by nature a wild olive tree and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these natural branches be grafted back into their own olive tree.All Israel Will Be Saved25 So that you may not claim to be wiser than you are, brothers and sisters,[i] I want you to understand this mystery: a hardening has come upon part of Israel, until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And so all Israel will be saved; as it is written,“Out of Zion will come the Deliverer;    he will banish ungodliness from Jacob.”27 “And this is my covenant with them,    when I take away their sins.”28 As regards the gospel they are enemies of God[j] for your sake; but as regards election they are beloved, for the sake of their ancestors; 29 for the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. 30 Just as you were once disobedient to God but have now received mercy because of their disobedience, 31 so they have now been disobedient in order that, by the mercy shown to you, they too may now[k] receive mercy. 32 For God has imprisoned all in disobedience so that he may be merciful to all.33 O the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways!34 “For who has known the mind of the Lord?    Or who has been his counselor?”35 “Or who has given a gift to him,    to receive a gift in return?”36 For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be the glory forever. Amen.Footnotes: class=”footnotes”> iv>

ootnotes”>v class=”footnotes”>

  1. Romans 11:6 Other ancient authorities add But if it is by works, it is no longer on the basis of grace, otherwise work would no longer be work
  2. Romans 11:11 Gk transgression
  3. Romans 11:11 Gk them
  4. Romans 11:12 Gk transgression
  5. Romans 11:14 Gk my flesh
  6. Romans 11:17 Other ancient authorities read the richness
  7. Romans 11:21 Other ancient authorities read neither will he spare you
  8. Romans 11:23 Gk lacks of Israel
  9. Romans 11:25 Gk brothers
  10. Romans 11:28 Gk lacks of God
  11. Romans 11:31 Other ancient authorities lack now

1 thought on “Answers To Difficult Questions: Has G_d Rejected His People?

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s